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Multi-view Video Coding for 3D Multimedia Services

Prof. Dr. Yo-Sung Ho, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Korea

In recent years, various multimedia services have become available and the demand for realistic multimedia systems is growing rapidly. A number of three-dimensional (3D) video technologies, such as holography, two-view stereoscopic system with special glasses, 3D wide screen cinema, and multi-view video have been studied. Among them, multi-view video coding (MVC) is the key technology for various applications including free-viewpoint video (FVV), free-viewpoint television (FVT), 3DTV, immersive teleconference, and surveillance systems. The traditional video is a two-dimensional (2D) medium and only provides a passive way for viewers to observe the scene. However, MVC can offer arbitrary viewpoints of dynamic scenes and thus allow more realistic video. The multi-view video includes multi-viewpoint video sequences captured by multiple cameras at the same time, but at different positions. However, because of the increased number of cameras, the multi-view video contains a large amount of data. Since this system has serious limitations on information distribution applications, such as broadcasting, network streaming services, and other commercial applications, we need to compress the multi-view sequence efficiently without sacrificing visual quality significantly. In this tutorial lecture, we are going to cover both the basics and the current state-of-the-art technologies for multi-view video coding.

Dr. Yo-Sung Ho received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electronic engineering from Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, in 1981 and 1983, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering from the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1990. He joined ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute), Daejon, Korea, in 1983. From 1990 to 1993, he was with Philips Laboratories, Briarcliff Manor, New York, where he was involved in development of the Advanced Digital High-Definition Television (AD-HDTV) system. In 1993, he rejoined the technical staff of ETRI and was involved in development of the Korean DBS Digital Television and High-Definition Television systems. Since 1995, he has been with Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), where he is currently Professor of Information and Communications Department. Since August 2003, he has been Director of Realistic Broadcasting Research Center at GIST in Korea. From September 2005, he has been a visiting scholar at University of Washington, Seattle, USA. He gave several tutorial lectures at various international conferences, including the IEEE Region Ten Conference (TenCon) in 1999 and 2000, the Pacific-Rim Conference on Multimedia (PCM) and the IEEE Pacific-Rim Symposium on Image and Video Technology (PSIVT) in 2006. He is presently serving as an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Multimedia. His research interests include Digital Image and Video Coding, Three-dimensional Image Modeling and Representation, and Advanced Source Coding Techniques.

Data Protection Technics, Cryptographic Protocols and PKI Systems in Modern Computer Networks

Dr. M. Marković, Security Department, Banca Intesa ad Beograd, Belgrade, Serbia

In this Tutorial, main cryptographic aspects of modern TCP/IP computer networks: digital signature technology based on asymmetrical cryptographic algorithms, data confidentiality by applying symmetrical cryptographic systems, and PKI system – Public Key Infrastructure, are addressed. This Tutorial is thus devoted to the emerging topic in domain of modern e-business systems – a computer network security based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) systems. First, we consider possible vulnerabilities of the TCP/IP computer networks and possible techniques to eliminate them. We signify that only a general and multi-layered security infrastructure could cope with possible attacks to the computer network systems. We evaluate security mechanisms on application, transport and network layers of ISO/OSI reference model and give examples of the today most popular security protocols applied in each of the mentioned layers (e.g. S/MIME, SSL and IPSec). Namely, we recomment a secure computer network systems that consists of combined security mechanisms on three different ISO/OSI reference model layers: application layer security (end-to-end security) based on strong user authentication, digital signature, confidentiality protection, digital certificates and hardware tokens (e.g. smart cards), transport layer security based on establishment of a cryptographic tunnel (symmetric cryptography) between network nodes and strong node authentication procedure and network IP layer security providing bulk security mechanisms on network level between network nodes – protection from the external network attacks. These layers are projected in a way that a vulnerability of the one layer could not compromise the other layers and then the whole system is not vulnerable. User strong authentication procedures based on digital certificates and PKI systems are especially emphasized. We also evaluate and signify differences between software-only, hardware-only and combined software and hardware security systems. Therefore, ubiquitous smart cards and hardware security modules are considered. Hardware security modules (HSM) represent very important security aspect of the modern computer networks. Main purposes of the HSM are twofold: increasing the overall system security and accelerating cryptographic functions (asymmetric and symmetric algorithms, key generation, etc.). HSMs are intended mainly for use in server applications and, optionally for client sides too in case of specialized information systems (government, military, police). For large individual usage, smart cards are more suitable as hardware security modules. However, for large usages, the best approach is in the combination of SW and smart card solutions for best performance. Namely, smart card increases security and SW increases the total processing speed. In this sense, the most suitable large-scale solution consists of: SW for bulk symmetric data encryption/decryption and smart card for digital envelop retrieval and digital signature generation. At the end, we give the brief description of the main components of the PKI systems, emphasizing Certification Authority and its role in establishing a cryptographic unique identity of the valid system users based on ITU-T X.509v3 digital certificates. Public-key cryptography uses a combination of public and private keys, digital signature, digital certificates, and trusted third party Certification Authorities (CA), to meet the major requirements of e-business security. Before applying the security mechanisms you need the answers for the following questions: Who is your CA? Where do you store your private key? How do you know that the private key of the person or server you want to talk to is secure? Where do you find certificates? A public-key infrastructure (PKI) provides the answers to the above questions. In the sense of ITU-T X.509 standard, the PKI system is defined as the set of hardware, software, roles and procedures needed to create, manage, store, distribute and revoke certificates based on public-key cryptography. PKI system provides a reliable organizational, logical and technical security environment for realization of the four main security functions of the e-business systems: authenticity, data integrity protection, non-repudiation and data confidentiality protection. PKI system consists of the following components: Certification Authority (CA) – responsible for issuing and revoking certificates, Registration Authorities (RAs) – responsible for acquiring certificate requests and checking the identity of the certificate holders, Systems for certificate distribution – responsible for delivering the certificates to their holders, Certificate holders (subjects) – people, machines or software agents that have been issued with certificates, CP, CPS, user agreements and other basic CA documents, systems for publication of issued certificates and Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs), as well as of PKI applications (secure WEB transactions, secure E-mail, secure FTP, VPN, secure Internet payment, secure document management system – secure digital archives, etc.). Besides, at the end of the Tutorial, we give a brief overview of legal aspects of using digital signature emphasizing the EU Directive on electronic signatures and corresponding Electronic Signature Laws on national levels in Europe. Also, we consider possible usage of qualified signatures which have the same legal effect as handwritten signatures, different accreditation and supervision schemes for CAs, some aspects about using Secure Signature Creation Devices (SSCD), necessary conditions for CAs issuing qualified certificates, etc.

Milan Marković received B.S.E.E., M.S.E.E., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia, in 1989, 1992, and 2001, respectively. He is a leading researcher of the Mathematical Institute SANU, Belgrade and is currently a lecturer on Military Technical Academy, Faculty of Business Informatics Belgrade and Computer Faculty Belgrad for “Secure Computer Networks” and “PKI systems” courses. His research interests are in cryptographic algorithms, public key infrastructure, combined SW/HW security solutions, smart cards, robust speech analysis, coding and recognition, statistical pattern recognition, signal processing, multimedia communication, wireless communications and wearable computing. He has been included in very sophisticated security projects, such as: PKI systems for: National Bank of Serbia, some commercial banks, Ministries of Internal and Foreign Affaires, as well as PKI systems for ongoing Serbian smart card ID project. He is currently in Banca Intesa ad Beograd, as an ICT Security Officer and is included in projects: developing security policies, PKI consolidation project in the bank for internal and external users, as well as in project of issuing EMV DDA MasterCards with PKI applications on them.

Voice Quality Measurement in Modern Telecommunications Networks

Dr. A. E. Mahdi, Department of Electronic & Computer Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

Due to fiercely growing market competition, QoS is continuously growing in importance in the telecommunications industry. For voice communication networks, the quality of the communicated speech is one of the most important measuring objects of QoS. Thus, the ability to continuously monitor and design for this quality has become a top priority to maintain customers’ satisfaction. Voice quality refers to the clearness of a speaker’s voice as perceived by a listener. Voice quality measurement (VQM) is a relatively new discipline which offers a means of adding the human, end-user’s perspective to traditional ways of performing network management evaluation of voice telephony services. The most reliable method for obtaining true measurement of users’ perception of speech quality is to perform properly designed Subjective Listening tests, whereby subjects hear speech recordings processed through different network conditions, and rate them using a simple opinion scale such as the ITU-T 5-point listening quality scale. The average score of all ratings registered by the subjects for a given condition is termed the Mean Opinion Score (MOS). Subjective tests are, however, slow and expensive to conduct making them accessible only to a small number of laboratories and unsuitable for real-time monitoring of live networks. Hence, numerous objective voice quality measures, which provide automatic assessment of voice communication systems without the need for human listeners, have been made available over the last two decades. These objective measures are becoming widely used particularly to supplement subjective test results. This tutorial will examine some of the technicalities associated with VQM and presents an up-to-date review of current state-of-the-art voice quality measurement methods/tools for telecommunication applications. The tutorial begins with a broad discussion of what voice quality is, how to measure it, and the needs for such measurement. Definitions of the two main categories of metrics used for evaluating voice quality; that is subjective and objective metrics, are then provided with detailed account of the various methods of both categories. Target applications of these methods and their advantages/disadvantages will also be discussed. The presentation will be accompanied by demonstrations of VQM for samples of degraded speech recordings using a number of methods including ITU-T standardised algorithms, such as the PESQ and the 3SQM (P.563).

Abdulhussain Mahdi is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Electronic & Computer Engineering, University of Limerick – Ireland. He is a Chartered Engineer (CEng), Member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology - UK (MIET), Member of the Engineering Council - UK, and Founder Member of the International Compumag Society (ICS). Dr Mahdi is a graduate in Electrical Engineering from University of Basrah (BSc 1st Class Hon. 1978) and earned his PhD in Electronic Engineering at University of Wales – Bangor, UK in 1990. He is also a SEDA-UK Accredited Teacher of Higher Education (University of Plymouth, UK 1998). His research interests include: speech processing and applications in telecom and rehabilitation, domain transformation and time-frequency analysis. He has authored and co-authored more than 82 refereed journal, book chapters and international conference articles and, and has edited one book. His published work has been cited in more than 40 journal articles.